International Health Care Clinic

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2017.11.16

Drinking water related outbreaks

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On November 10, 2017, US Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced about waterborne disease that related drinking water from 2013 to 2014.  Public health officials from 19 states (Alaska, Arizona, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin) reported 42 outbreaks associated with drinking water.  The number of drinking water related outbreaks has increased from 32 in 2011-2012 to 42 in 2013 – 2014.  Legionella is the main cause of drinking water associated outbreaks and it was implicated in 24 (57%) outbreaks, 130 (13%) cases, 109 (88%) hospitalizations, and all 13 deaths.

In the case of United States, CNN reported that Legionella bacteria enter drinking water through various activities such as flood, but major problem of water pollution is aging infrastructure.  In small community, they do not have enough resources to repair infrastructure, and it cases water pollution.

Causes of Legionella related outbreaks are not only drinking water but also mists of water.  Once people are infected by Legionella, they may have symptoms such as fever, chills, chest pain and dyspnea.  In severe case, people become pneumonia if people leave these symptoms.

We strongly recommend contacting doctor if you have them.

 

参考文献

 CNN:

http://edition.cnn.com/2017/11/09/health/cdc-water-contamination-reports/index.html

http://edition.cnn.com/2017/11/12/health/disneyland-legionnaires-anaheim/index.html

 CDC(アメリカ疾病予防管理センター)

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/pdfs/mm6644-H.pdf

https://www.cdc.gov/media/mmwrnews/2017/1109.html

 千葉県HP

https://www.pref.chiba.lg.jp/eishi/koushuueisei/shisetsu/rejionera.html

 NIID(国立感染症センター)

https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/ja/diseases/ra/legionella/392-encyclopedia/530-legionella.html

 FORTH(厚生労働省検疫所)

http://www.forth.go.jp/useful/infectious/name/name72.html